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IRISH WORKHOUSE RULES (1844).

To the Guardians of the Poor of the several Unions named in the Schedule hereunto annexed, and the Officers of the Workhouses of such Unions; To the Clerk or Clerks to the Justices of the Petty Sessions held for the Division or Divisions in Which the Townlands and Places comprised within the said Unions are situate; and to all others whom it may concern.
   WE, the Poor Law Commissioners, in pursuance of the authorities vested in us, by an Act passed in the second year of the reign of Her present Majesty Queen Victoria, intituled, "An Act for the more effectual Relief of the Destitute Poor in Ireland," and by the Acts amending the same, do hereby order, direct, and declare... as follows:—

Admission of Paupers.

Article 1.—Every pauper who shall be admitted into the workhouse, either upon his first or any subsequent admission, shall be admitted in one of the following modes only, that is to say:—

1. By a written or printed order of the Board of Guardians, signed by their clerk or presiding chairman.

2. By the master of the workhouse (or, during his absence or inability to act, by the matron), without any such order, in case of any sudden and urgent necessity, or in case of his receiving a written recommendation from a warden to admit, provisionally, any person or persons mentioned by name therein, whom the master shall, on due examination of the circumstances of the case, believe to be destitute, and deem to be a proper object for admission to the workhouse.

Article 2.—No pauper shall be admitted under any written or printed order as mentioned in Article 1, if the same bear date more than three days before the pauper duly presents it at the workhouse.

Article 3.—If a pauper be admitted in any other than the first of the two modes mentioned in Article 1, the admission of such pauper shall be brought before the Board of Guardians at their next meeting, who shall decide on the propriety of the pauper's continuing in the workhouse or otherwise, and make an order accordingly.

Article 4.—As soon as a pauper is admitted, his name and religious persuasion shall be duly entered in the register, and he shall be placed in the probationary ward, or in some room to be exclusively appropriated for the purpose, and shall there remain until examined by the medical officer of the workhouse.

Article, 5.—If the medical officer, upon such examination, pronounce the pauper to be labouring under any disease of body or mind, the pauper shall be placed either in the sick ward, Or in such other ward appropriated to the reception of such cases, as the medical officer shall direct,

Article 6.—If the medical officer pronounce the pauper to be free from any such disease, the pauper shall be placed in part of the workhouse assigned to the class to which he may belong.

Article 7.—Before being removed froth the probationary ward, the pauper shall he thoroughly cleansed; and shall be clothed in a workhouse dress, and the clothes which he wore at the time of his admission shall be purified, and, deposited in a place appropriated for that purpose, with the pauper's name affixed thereto. Such clothes shall be restored to the pauper when he leaves the workhouse.

Article 8.—Every pauper shall, upon his admission into the workhouse, or on his return after a temporary leave of absence, in pursuance of Article 25, be searched by or under the inspection of the proper officer, and all articles prohibited by any Act of Parliament, or by this Order, which may be found upon his person, shall be taken from him, and, if possible, restored to him at his departure from the workhouse.

Classification of the Paupers.

Article 9.—The paupers, so far as the workhouse admits thereof, shall be classed as follows:

1. Males above the age of 15 years.

2. Boys above the age of 2 years, and under that of 15 years.

3. Females above the age of 15 years.

4. Girls above the age of 2 years, and under that of 15 years.

5. Children under 2 years of age.

Article 10.—To each of the classes specified in Article 9 shall be assigned, by the Board of Guardians, the apartments and yard best fitted for the reception of such class; and where the number of inmates and the accommodation of the workhouse admit thereof, the said classes may be further subdivided pith the approval of the Poor Law Commissioners.

Article 11.—Each class, or subdivision of a class, shall respectively remain in the apartment assigned to them, without communication with any other class or subdivision of a class; subject, nevertheless, to such arrangements as exist with reference to the probationary wards and infirmary, and also to the following five exceptions:

Exception 1.—Any paupers of the third class, and any paupers of a proper age in the fourth class, may be employed, constantly or occasionally, as assistants to the nurses in any of the sick wards, or in the care of infants, or as assistants in the household work; provided that the said paupers, when employed in the household work, be so employed without communication with the paupers of the first and second classes.

Exception 2.—Any aged pauper of the third class, whom the master may deem fit to perform any of the duties of a mime or assistant to the matron, may be so employed in the sick wards, or those of the second, third, fourth, or fifth classes; and any pauper of the first class, who may by the master be deemed fit, may be placed in the ward of the second class, to aid in the management, and superintend the behaviour, of the paupers of such class.

Exception 3.—The boys and girls under 15 years of age may be permitted to meet in the same school, for the purposes of instruction, subject to the consent and approval of the Poor Law Commissioners, first had and obtained.

Exception 4.—All paupers of class 5, whose mothers are inmates of the workhouse, shall be allowed to remain with their mothers, if the mothers so desire; and all paupers of classes 2 and 4, who are between the ages of two and seven years, shall, when not attending school, be placed in some apartment specially provided for them; and the mothers of such last-named children shall he permitted to have access to them at all reasonable times.

Exception 5.—The master of the workhouse (subject to any regulations to be made by the Board of Guardians and approved of by the Poor Law Commissioners) shall allow the father or mother of any child in the work-house, who may be desirous of seeing such child, to have an interview with such child at some time in each day, in some room in the workhouse to be appointed for that purpose.

Article 12.—Provided that if it shall be made to appear to the Poor Law Commissioners, that is expedient to deviate from the classification herein before prescribed, and the Poor Law Commissioners shall signify their consent to such deviation, it shall be lawful for the Board of Guardians to depart from the classification so far and subject to such conditions, as the Commissioners may prescribe.

Discipline and Diet of the Paupers.

Article 13.—All the paupers in the workhouse, except those disabled by sickness or infirmity, persons of unsound mind, and children, shall rise, be set to work, leave off work, and go to bed at such times, and shall be allowed such intervals for their meals as the Board of Guardians shall, by any regulation approved by the Poor Law Commissioners, direct; and these several times shall be notified by the ringing of a bell.

Article 14.—Half an hour after the bell shall have been rung for rising, the names of the paupers shall be called over by the master, schoolmaster, matron, and schoolmistress respectively, in the several wards, when every pauper belonging to each ward must be present to answer to his name and to be inspected.

Article 15.—The meals shall be taken by all the paupers (except those disabled by sickness or infirmity, persons of unsound mind, and children) in the dining hall, and in no other place whatever; and during the time of meals order and decorum shall be maintained; and no pauper (except those disabled by sickness or infirmity, persons of unsound mind, and children) shall go to or remain in his sleeping room, either in the time appointed for work or in the intervals allowed for meals, except by permission of the master or matron.

Article 16.—The master and matron of the workhouse shall (subject to the directions of the Board of Guardians) fix the hours of rising and going to bed for the sick, the infirm, and the young children, and determine the occupation and employment of which such inmates may be capable; and the meals for such inmates shall be provided at such times and in such manner as the Board of Guardians shall direct.

Article 17.—The paupers of the respective sexes shall be dieted as set forth In the dietary-table which may be prescribed for the use of the workhouse, and in no other manner.

Article 18.—Provided—

1stly.—That the medical officer may direct in writing such diet for any individual pauper in the sick or lunatic wards as he shall deem necessary.

2dly.—That if the medical officer shall at any time certify that he deems a temporary change in the diet essential to the health of the paupers in the workhouse, or of any class or classes thereof, the guardians shall cause a copy of such certificate to be entered on the minutes of their proceedings, and shall be empowered forthwith to order, by a resolution, the said diet a be temporarily changed according to the recommendation of the medical officer, and shall forthwith transmit a copy of such certificate and resolution to the Poor Law Commissioners.

3dly.—That the medical officer shall be specially consulted by the matron as to the nature of the food of the infants, and the time at which such infants should be weaned.

Article 19.—No pauper shall have or consume any tobacco, or any spirituous or fermented liquor, or food or provision other than is allowed in the said dietary-table, unless by the direction in writing of the medical officer, as provided for in Article 17.

Article 20.—The clothing to be worn by the paupers in the workhouse shall be made of such materials as the Board of Guardians may determine.

Article 21.—The paupers of the several classes shall be kept employed according to their capacity and ability; but no pauper shall work on his own account, or on account of any party other than the Board of Guardians; and no pauper shall receive any compensation for his labour.

Article 22.—The boys and girls who are inmates of the workhouse shall, for three of the working hours at least every day, be instructed in reading, writing, arithmetic, and the principles of the Christian religion; and such other instruction shall be imparted to them as shall fit them for service, and train them to habits of usefulness, industry, and virtue.

Article 23.—Any pauper may quit the workhouse upon giving the master three hours' previous notice of his wish to do so; but no such pauper shall carry with him any clothes or other articles belonging to the Board of Guardians without the express permission of the master or matron.

Article 24.—No pauper having a family dependent on him shall so quit the workhouse without taking the whole of such family with him; nor shall any pauper, after so quitting the workhouse, be again received therein, except in one of the modes prescribed in Article 1 for the admission of paupers.

Article 25.—Provided nevertheless, that in any case urgently requiring the immediate and temporary presence of any pauper elsewhere, the restrictions upon quitting and returning to the workhouse, specified in Article 1, Article 23, and Article 24, may be dispensed with by the master; but the master shall report in writing every such to the Board of Guardians at their next meeting, stating specially the grounds of the exception in each particular case; and their allowance or disapproval of the same by the guardians shall be recorded in the minute book.

Article 26.—The master of the workhouse may allow the paupers of each sex under the age of 15, subject to such restrictions as the Board of Guardians may impose, to quit the workhouse under the care and guidance of himself, or the matron, schoolmaster, schoolmistress, porter, or some one of the assistants and servants of the workhouse, for the purpose of exercise.

Article 27.—No person shall visit any pauper in the workhouse, except by permission of the master, or {in his absence) of the matron, and subject to such conditions and restriction, as the Board of Guardians may prescribe; such interview shall take place, except where a sick pauper is visited, in a room separate from the other inmates of the workhouse, in the presence of the master, matron, or porter.

Article 28.—No written or printed paper of an improper tendency shall be allowed to circulate, nor be read aloud among the inmates of the workhouse.

Article 29.—No pauper shall play at cards, nor at any game of chance, in the workhouse; and it shall be lawful for the master to take from any pauper, and to keep until his departure front the workhouse, any cards, dice, or other articles relating to games of chance, which may be in his possession.

Article 30.—No pauper shall smoke within the precincts of the workhouse, nor shall have any matches or other articles of a highly combustible nature in his possession.

Article 31.—Any regular minister of the religious persuasion of any inmate of the workhouse who shall, at any time in the day, on the request of any inmate, enter the workhouse for the purpose of affording religious assistance to him, or for the purpose of instructing his child or children in the principles of his religion, shall give such assistance or instruction so as not to interfere with the good order and discipline of the other inmates of the workhouse; and such religious assistance or instruction shall be strictly confined to inmates who are of the religious persuasion of such minister, and to the children of such inmates.

Article 32.—If any inmate of the age of 15 years and upwards, being of sound mind, shall desire to be registered as of a different religious denomination from that which is entered as his religious denomination in the register; or if the parents or surviving parent of any child under the age of 15 shall desire, in like manner, to have the register amended in respect. of the religious denomination of such child; in either of such cases, if the guardians shall, after due inquiry and personal examination of the party expressing such desire, be satisfied that the present religious persuasion of any inmate is wrongly described in the register, they shall cause the same to lie amended accordingly.

Article 33.—If any inmate, being of sound mind, shall desire to be visited by a minister of any religious denomination different from that which is entered in the register as the religious denomination of such inmate, the request shall be made to the master of the workhouse, who shall report the same to the Board of Guardians at their next meeting; and the guardians shall give such direction thereon as may appear to them fitting and expedient; provided that in any case of urgency affecting the of an inmate, the master shall, of his own discretion, permit such inmate to be visited at once, and communicate such request to such minister accordingly.

Article 34.—No work, except the necessary household work, and cooking, shall he performed by the paupers on Sunday, Good Friday, and Christmas Day.

Article 35.— Prayers shall be read before breakfast and after supper every day, and divine service shall be performed every Sunday in the workhouse (unless the guardians, with the consent of the Poor Law Commissioners shall otherwise direct); at which prayers and service all the paupers shall attend, except the sick, persons of unsound mind, the young children, and such as are too infirm to do so; provided that those paupers who may object so to attend on account of their religious principle shall also be exempt from such attendance.

Punishments for Misbehaviour of Paupers.

Article 36.—Any pauper who shall neglect to observe such of the regulations herein contained as are applicable to and binding on him;

Or who shall make any noise when silence is ordered to be kept;

Or who shall use obscene or profane language;

Or shall by word or deed insult or revile any person;

Or shall threaten to strike or to assault any person;

Or shall not duly cleanse his person;

Or shall refuse or neglect to work, after having been required to do so;

Or shall pretend sickness;

Or shall play at cards or other game of chance;

Or shall enter, or attempt to enter, without permission, the ward or yard appropriated to any class of paupers, other than that to which he belongs;

Or shall misbehave at public worship, or at prayers;

Or shall not return after the appointed time of absence, when allowed to quit the workhouse temporarily;

Or shall wilfully disobey any lawful order of any officer of the workhouse; shall be deemed Disorderly.

Article 37.—Any pauper who shall, within seven days, repeat any one or commit more than one of the offences specified in Article 36, or who shall by word or deed insult or revile the master or matron, or any other officer of the workhouse, or any of the guardians;

Or shall wilfully disobey any lawful order of the master or matron after such order shall have been repeated;

Or shall attempt to introduce any fermented or spirituous liquors or tobacco, without lawful authority;

Or shall unlawfully strike or otherwise unlawfully assault any person;

Or shall wilfully or mischievously damage or soil any property whatsoever belonging to the guardians;

Or shall wilfully waste or spoil any provisions, stock, tools, or materials for work, belonging to the guardians;

Or shall be drunk;

Or shall commit any act of indecency;

Or shall wilfully disturb the other inmates during prayers or divine worship;

Or shall climb over any wall or fence, or attempt to quit the workhouse premises in any irregular mode;

Or shall attempt to convey out of the workhouse any clothes or other articles belonging to the Board of Guardians;

shall be deemed Refractory.

Article 38.—It shall be lawful for the master of the workhouse, with or without the directions of the Board of Guardians, to punish any disorderly pauper, by requiring such pauper, for a time not exceeding two days, to perform one hour's extra work in each day, and by withholding all milk or buttermilk which such pauper would otherwise receive with his meals.

Article 39.—It shall be lawful for the Board of Guardians, by a special direction to be entered on their minutes, to order any refractory pauper to be punished by confinement in a separate room, with or without an increase in the time of work and an alteration of diet, similar in kind and duration to that prescribed in Article 38 for disorderly paupers; but no pauper shall be so confined for a longer period than 24 hours; or, if it be deemed right that such pauper shall be carried before a Justice of the Peace, and if such period of 24 hours should be insufficient for that purpose, then for such further time as may be necessary for such purpose.

Article 40.—It shall he lawful for the Board of Guardians; by any special or general order, to direct that a dress different from that of the other inmates shall be worn by disorderly or refractory paupers, during a period of not more than 48 hours, jointly with or in lieu of the alteration of diet to which any such pauper might be subjected by the regulations herein contained; but it shall not be lawful for the Board of Guardians to cause any penal dress, or distinguishing mark of disgrace, to be worn by any adult pauper, or class of adult paupers, unless such pauper or paupers shall be disorderly or refractory within the meaning of Article 36 or Article 37 of this Order.

Article 41.—If any offence, whereby a pauper becomes refractory under Article 30 or Article 37, be accompanied by any of the following circumstances of aggravation; that is to say, if such pauper

Persist in using violence against any person;

Or persist in creating a noise or disturb nice, so as to annoy a considerable number of the other inmates;

Or endeavour to excite other paupers to acts of insubordination;

Or persist in acting indecently or obscenely in the presence of any other inmate;

Or persist in mischievously breaking or damaging any goods or property of the guardians;

it shall be lawful for the master, without any direction of the Board of Guardians, immediately to place such refractory pauper in confinement for any time not exceeding 12 hours; which confinement shall, however, be reckoned as part of any punishment afterwards imposed by the Board of Guardians for the saute offence. But it shall not be lawful for the master to confine any adult pauper without the direction of the Board of Guardians in that behalf, except in one of the cases specified in this Article.

Article 42.—Every refractory pauper shall be deemed to be also disorderly, and may be punished as such; but no pauper who may have been punished for any offence as disorderly shall afterwards be punished for the same offence as refractory; and no pauper who may have been punished for any offence as refractory shall afterwards be punished for the same offence as disorderly.

Article 43.—No pauper who may have been under medical care, or who may have been entered in the weekly medical return as sick or infirm, at any time in the course of the seven days next preceding the day of the commission of the offence, or who may be reasonably supposed to be under 12 or above 60 years of age, or who may be pronounced by the medical officer of the workhouse to be pregnant, or who may he suckling a child, shall be punished by alteration of diet, or by confinement, unless the medical officer shall have previously certified in writing that no injury to the health of such pauper is reasonably to be apprehended from the proposed punishment; and any modification diminishing such punishment which the medical officer of the workhouse may suggest, shall be adopted by the master.

Article 44.—No pauper shall be confined between eight o'clock in the evening and six o'clock in the morning, without being furnished with a bed and bedding suitable to the season, and with the other proper conveniences.

Article 45.—No child under 12 years of age shall be confined in a dark room, or during the night.

Article 46.—No corporal punishment shall be inflicted on any male child except by the schoolmaster or master of the workhouse.

Article 47.—No corporal punishment shall be inflicted on any female child.

Article 48.—No corporal punishment shall be inflicted on any male child, except with a rod or other instrument, such as shall be seen and approved of by the Board of Guardians or the visiting committee.

Article 49.—No corporal punishment shall be inflicted on any male child until six hours shall have elapsed from the commission of the offence for which such punishment is inflicted.

Article 50.—Whenever any male child is punished by corporal correction, the master and schoolmaster shall (if possible) be both present.

Article 51.—-No male child shall be punished by corporal correction, whose age may be reasonably supposed to exceed 14 years.

Article 52.—The master of the workhouse shall keep a hook, to be furnished to him by the guardians, in the form (A.) hereunto annexed, in which he shall duly enter—

1stly.—All cases of refractory or disorderly paupers, whether children or adults; reported to the Board of Guardians for their decision thereon.

2dly.—All cases of paupers, whether children or adults, who may have been punished without the direction of the Board of Guardians, with the particulars of their respective offences and punishments.

Article 53.—The person who punishes any child with corporal correction shall forthwith report to the master the particulars of the offence and punishment; said the master shall enter the same in the book specified in Article 52.

Article 54.—Such book shall be laid on the table at every ordinary meeting of the Board of Guardians, and every entry made in such book since the last ordinary meeting shall be read to the Board by the clerk.

The guardians shall thereupon, in the first place, give directions as to any confinement or other punishment of any refractory or disorderly pauper reported for their decision; and such direction shall be entered on the minutes of the proceedings of the day, and a copy thereof shall be inserted by the clerk in the book specified in Article 52.

The guardians, in the second place, shall take into their consideration the cases in which punishments are reported to have been already inflicted by the master or other officer, and the opinion of the guardians in every such case shall be entered on the minutes of the day, and shall be communicated to the master by the chairman or clerk; and if the opinion of the guardians be that the master or other officer has in any case acted illegally or improperly, a copy of the minutes of such opinion shall be forwarded by the clerk to the Poor Law Commissioners.

Article 55.—Every pauper are the age of seven years, who is in the work-house, and who may have been punished since the last ordinary meeting of the guardians, or who may be reported as refractory or disorderly, shall be brought into the Board-room during the sitting of the Board of Guardians at their next ordinary meeting, whether he may request it or not, and shalt have an opportunity of complaining to the guardians of any undue punishment, or of any unjust charge; and the fact of such pauper having been brought before the guardians shall be entered on the minutes of the proceedings of the day.

Article 56.—The master shall cause a legible copy of the regulations respecting disorderly and refractory paupers contained in this Order, to be kept suspended in the dining-hall of the workhouse, in the school-room or school-rooms. and in the probationary wards, and also in the Board-room of the guardians.

Visiting Committee.

Article 57.—The Board of Guardians shall appoint a Visiting Committee from their own body, who shall carefully examine the workhouse of the union once in every week at the least, shall inspect the last reports of the chaplains and medical officer of the workhouse, shall examine the stores in the workhouse, and ascertain the truth and circumstances of any complaints that may be made to them. And the visiting committee shall from time to time write such answers as the facts may warrant, to the following queries, which are to be printed in a book, intitled the "Report Book of the Visiting Committee," to be provided by the guardians, and kept in the workhouse for that purpose, and to be submitted regularly to the Board of Guardians at their ordinary meetings:

Question 1. Is the workhouse, with its wards, offices, yards, and appurtenances, clean and well ventilated in every part?—if not, state the defect or omission.

Q.2. Do the adult inmates of the workhouse, of all classes, appear clean in their persons, and decent and orderly in their behaviour?—if not, state the exceptions.

Q.3. Are the able-bodied inmates of each sex employed and kept at work, as directed by the Board of Guardians?—if not, and if any improvement can be suggested in their employment, state the same.

Q.4. Are the infirm of each sex who are capable of work, employed and kept to work as far as their circumstances will admit of it, and as directed by the Board of Guardians?—if not, and if any improvement can be suggested, state the same.

Q.5. Are the persons infirm in body or mind, of each sex, properly attended to according to their several conditions.

Q.6. Are the boys and girls in the school making due progress in reading, writing and arithmetic, and do the chaplains regularly attend to their religious instruction?

Q.7. Is the industrial training of the boys and girls properly attended to, and are they employed as the guardians have directed?

Q.8. Are the boys and girls clean in their persons, and correct in their behaviour?

Q.9. Are the young children properly nursed and taken care of, and do they appear in a clean and healthy state?

Q.10. Is regular attendance given by the medical officer?

Q.11. Do the inmates of the infirmary appear to be in as satisfactory a state as their ailments admit of?— there any infectious disease in the workhouse?—if so, state the particulars. Is there any child not vaccinated?

Q.12. Is divine service regularly performed?—Are prayers regularly read?

Q.13. Is the established dietary duly observed? and are the hours of meals regularly adhered to?

Q.14. Are the provisions and other supplies of the qualities contracted for?

Q.15. Is the separation of the various classes strictly enforced, according to Article 9?

Q.16. Is any complaint made by any pauper against any officer, or in respect of the provisions or accommodations?—if so, state the name of the complainant, and the subject of the complaint.

Article 58.—It shall be lawful for any Poor Law Commissioner, or any Assistant Poor Law Commissioner, to visit and inspect the workhouse; and to enter any remarks thereon in the book containing the questions to be answered by the visiting committee; and no officer of such workhouse shall in any way, directly or indirectly, impede such visit or inspection, or the entry of such remarks.

The Repairing, Upholding, and Insuring of the Workhouse.

Article 59.—The guardians shall once at least in every year, and as often as may be necessary for cleanliness, cause all the rooms, wards, offices,' and privies belonging to the workhouse to be limewashed.

Article 60.—The guardians shall uphold and maintain the premises constituting the workhouse in good and substantial repair; and shall, from time to time, remedy without delay any such defect in the repair of the house, its drainage, warmth, or ventilation, or in the furniture or fixtures thereof, as may tend to injure the health of the inmates; and with a view to so upholding and maintaining the workhouse, they shall insure and keep insured the same, against loss or damage by fire, for such a sum, being reasonably sufficient to cover any probable loss, and in such manner, as the said guardians may determine.

Duties of the Officers of the Workhouse.

Article 61.—The duties of the several officers of the workhouse and their assistants appointed or to be appointed by the guardians, under the regulations of the Poor Law Commissioners, or by the said Commissioners in default of appointment by the guardians, shall be, respectively, such as are hereinafter specified.

Duties of the Master.

Article 62;—The following shall be the duties of the master of the workhouse:—

No.1. To admit paupers into the workhouse in obedience to any order made under Article 1, and also persons applying for admission, who may appear to him to require relief through and sudden and urgent necessity; or who shall be named in any written recommendation from a warden, and shall appear to the master to be destitute and proper objects for admission; and to cause every pauper upon admission to be examined by the medical officer as is directed in Article 4.

No. 2. To register the name and religious persuasion of every pauper, upon his admission; and to cause every male pauper above the age of seven years, upon admission, to be searched, cleansed, and clothed, and to be placed in the ward appropriated to the class to which he appears to belong.

No. 3. To enforce industry, order, punctuality, and cleanliness, and the observance of the several rules herein contained, by the paupers in the workhouse, and by the several officers, assistants, and servants therein employed.

No. 4. To read prayers to the paupers before breakfast and after supper every, date, or cause prayers to be read — at which all the inmates must attend, excepting those who are incapacitated through sickness, infirmity, or infancy, and those who object to such attendance on account of their religious principles; and to the paupers making such declaration, the master shall, if practicable, cause prayers to be read by someone of their own religious persuasion.

No. 5. To cause the paupers to be inspected, and their names called over, immediately after morning prayers every day, in order that it may be seen that each individual is clean and in a proper state.

No. 6. To provide for and enforce the employment of the able-bodied adult paupers, during the whole of the hours of labour; to assist in training the youth in such employment as will best fit them for gaining their own living; to keep the partially disabled paupers occupied to the extent of their ability and to allow none who are capable of employment to be idle at any time.

No. 7. To visit the sleeping wards of the male paupers at 11 o'clock in the forenoon of every day, and to see that such wards have been all duly cleansed and properly ventilated.

No. 8. To see that the meals of the paupers are properly dressed and served, and to superintend the distribution thereof, in accordance with Article 16, Article 18, and Article 19.

No. 9. To say, or cause to be said, grace before and after meals.

No. 10. To see that the dining halls, tables, and seats are cleansed after each meal.

No. 11. To visit all the wards of the male paupers at or before nine o'clock every night, and see that all the male paupers are in bed, and that all fires and lights are extinguished.

No. 12. To receive from the porter the keys of the entrance to the workhouse, at nine o'clock every night, and to deliver them to him again at six o'clock every morning, or at such hours as shall, from time to time, be fixed by the Board of Guardians, and approved by the Poor Law Commissioners.

No. 13. To see that the male paupers are properly clothed, and that their clothes are kept in proper repair.

No. 14. To send for the medical officer of the workhouse in case any pauper is taken ill, or becomes insane; and to take care that all sick and insane paupers are duly visited by the medical officer, and are provided with such medicines and attendance, diet, and other necessaries, as the medical officer shall in writing direct, and to apprise the nearest relation in the workhouse of the sickness of any pauper. And in the case of dangerous sickness, to send for the chaplain or other licensed minister of the persuasion of the pauper, as well as for any relative or friend of such pauper, resident within a reasonable distance, whom he may desire to see.

No. 15. To give immediate information of the death of any pauper in the workhouse to the medical officer, and to the nearest relations of the deceased who may be known to him, and who may reside within a reasonable distance; and if the body be not removed within a reasonable time, to provide for the interment hereof.

No. 16. To take charge of the clothes, and other articles, if any, of such deceased pauper, and deliver an inventory thereof to the next meeting of the Board of Guardians, who shall give the necessary directions respecting the same.

No. 17. To keep all books of accounts which he is, or hereafter may be, by any Order under the hands and seal of the Poor Law Commissioners, directed and required to keep; to allow the same to be constantly open to the inspection of any of the guardians of the union, and to submit the same to the guardians at their meetings.

No. 18. To submit to the Board of Guardians at every ordinary meeting an estimate of such provisions and other articles as are required for the use of the workhouse, and to receive and execute the directions of the Board of Guardians thereupon.

No. 19. To receive all provisions and other articles purchased or procured for the use of the workhouse; and before placing there in store, to weigh the same, and examine and compare them with the bills of parcels or invoices severally relating thereto; and after having proved the accuracy of such bills or invoices, to authenticate the same with his signature, and submit them to the Board of Guardians at their next ordinary meeting.

No. 20. To receive and take charge of all provisions, clothing, linen, and other articles, belonging to the workhouse, or confided to his care by the Board of Guardians, and issue the same to the matron or other persons as may be required; and such articles shall be applied to such purposes as shall be authorized or approved of by the Board of Guardians, and to no other.

No. 21. To obtain the order in writing of the Board of Guardians, duly entered in the order book provided for that purpose, and signed by the chairman, before purchasing or procuring any articles for the use of the workhouse, or ordering any alterations or repairs of any part of the premises, or of the furniture or other articles belonging thereto.

No. 22. To read over to the paupers such of the regulations herein contained, and at such times, as the Board of Guardians shall direct.

No. 23. To report to the Board of Guardians, from time to time, the names of such children as may be fit to put out to service or other employment, and to take the necessary steps for carrying into effect the directions of the Board of Guardians thereon.

No. 24. to keep a book to be called "The Masters Journal;" to enter therein every important occurrence in the workhouse, other than those entered in the book required by Article 52 to be kept, and to cause such book to be laid before the Board of Guardians at every ordinary meeting.

No. 25. To take care that the wards, rooms, larder, kitchen, and all other offices of the workhouse, and all the utensils and furniture thereof, be kept clean and in good order; and as often as any defect in the same, or in the state of the workhouse, shall occur, to report the same in his journal to the Board of Guardians at their next ordinary meeting.

No. 26. To inform the visiting committee and the Board of Guardians of the state of the workhouse in every department; and to report in his journal to the Board of Guardians at their next ordinary meeting any negligence or other misconduct on the part of any of the subordinate officers or servants of the establishment; to offer suggestions to the Board of Guardians for the correction of abuses, and the introduction of improvements in the management of the workhouse; and generally to observe and fulfil all lawful orders and directions of the Board of Guardians, suitable to his office.

Duties of the Matron.

Article 63.—The following shall be the duties of the matron of the workhouse:—

No. 1. In the absence of the master, or during his inability, to act as his substitute in all matters relating to the admission of paupers into the workhouse; and to cause every pauper, upon such admission, to be duly registered and examined by the medical officer, as is directed in Article 4.

No. 2. To cause the pauper children, under the age of seven years, and the female paupers, to be searched, cleansed, and clothed upon their admission, and to be placed in the wards appropriated to the classes to which they appear to belong.

No. 3. To provide for and enforce the employment of the able-bodied female paupers during the whole of the hours of labour; and to keep the partially disabled female paupers occupied to the extent of their ability, and to assist the schoolmistress in training up the children so as best to fit them for service.

No. 4. To call over the names of the paupers, as is directed in Article 14, to inspect their persons, and see that each individual is clean.

No. 5. To visit all the wards of the females and children every night before none o'clock, and to ascertain that all the paupers in such wards are in bed, and all the fires and lights therein extinguished.

No. 6. To pay particular attention to the moral conduct and orderly behaviour of the females and children, and to see that they are clean and decent in their dress and persons.

No. 7. To superintend and give the necessary directions for making and mending the linen end clothing supplied to the male paupers, and all the clothing supplied to the female paupers and children; and to take care that all such clothing be marked with the name of the union.

No. 8. To see that every pauper in the workhouse has clean linen once a week, and that all the beds be kept in a clean and wholesome state.

No. 9. To take charge of the linen and stockings for the use of the paupers, and the other linen in use in the workhouse, and to apply the same to such purposes as shall be authorized or approved of by the Board of Guardians, and to no other.

No. 10. To superintend and give the necessary directions concerning the washing, drying, and getting up of the linen, stockings, and blankets, and to see that the same be not dried in the sleeping wards, or in the sick wards.

No. 11. To take care, with the assistance of the nurses, of the children and sick paupers; and to provide the proper diet for the children and the sick paupers, and to furnish them with such changes of clothes and linen as may be necessary.

No. 12. To assist the master in the general management and superintendence of the workhouse, and especially in—

Enforcing the observance of good order, cleanliness, punctuality, industry, and decency of demeanour among the paupers;

Cleansing and ventilating the sleeping wards and the dining hall, and all other parts of the premises;

Placing in store and taking charge of the provisions, clothing, linen, and other articles belonging to the union.

No. 13. To report to the master any negligence, or other misconduct, on the part of any of the subordinate officers or servants of the establishment.

No. 14. And generally to observe and fulfil all lawful orders and directions of the Board of Guardians, suitable to her office.

Duties of the Schoolmaster and Schoolmistress.

Article 64.—The following shall be the duties of the schoolmaster and school mistress:—

No. 1. To instruct the boys and girls according to the directions expressed in Article 22.

No. 2. To regulate the discipline and organization of the school, and the industrial and moral training of the children, subject to the directions of the Board of Guardians.

No. 3. To accompany the children when they quit the workhouse for exercise, unless the guardians shall otherwise direct.

No. 4. To keep the children clean in their persons, and orderly and decorous in their conduct.

No. 5. To assist the master and matron respectively in maintaining due subordination in the workhouse.

Duties of the Porter.

Article 65.—The following shall be the duties of the porter of the workhouse:—

No. 1. To keep the gate, and to prevent any person, not being an officer of the workhouse, or of the union, or an Assistant Commissioner, or any person authorized by law, or by the said Commissioners, or Board of Guardians, from entering into, or going out of the house without the leave of the master or matron.

No. 2. To keep a book in which he shall enter the name and business of every officer or other person who shall go into the workhouse, and the name of every officer or other person who shall go out thereof, together with the time of such officer's or person's going in or out.

No. 3. To receive all paupers who apply for admission with a proper order, as directed in Article 1, or under circumstances of sudden or urgent necessity; and if the master and matron be both absent, to place such paupers in the probationary ward until the master or matron return.

No. 4. To examine all parcels and goads before they are received into the workhouse, and prevent the admission of any spirituous or fermented liquors, or other articles contrary to law, or to any of the regulations herein contained.

No. 5. To search any pauper entering or leaving the workhouse, whom he may suspect to have possession of any spirits or other prohibited articles; and to require any other person entering the workhouse, whom he may suspect of having possession of any such spirits or prohibited articles, to satisfy him to the contrary before he shall permit such person to be admitted.

No. 6. To examine all parcels taken by any pauper out of the workhouse, and to prevent the undue removal of any article from the premises.

No. 7. To lock all the outer doors, and take the keys to the master at nine o'clock every night, and to receive them back from him every morning at six o'clock, or at such hours as shall, from time to time, be fixed by the Board of Guardians, and approved of by the Poor Law Commissioners; and if any application for admission to the workhouse be made after the keys shall have been so taken to the master, to apprise the master forthwith of such application.

No. 8. To assist the master, matron, schoolmaster, and schoolmistress in preserving order, and in enforcing obedience and due subordination in the workhouse.

No. 9. To inform the master of all things affecting the security, order, and interest of the workhouse, and to obey all the lawful directions of the master or matron, and of the Board of Guardians, suitable to his office.

Duties of the Medical Officer for the Workhouse.

Article 66.—The following shall be duties of the medical officer for the workhouse:—

No. 1. To attend at the workhouse at the times fixed by the Board of Guardians, and also when sent for by the master, matron, or porter of the workhouse, in cases of sudden illness, accident, or other emergency; and at all such other times as the state of the sick or insane patients within the workhouse may render necessary.

No. 2. To examine the state of the paupers on their admission into the workhouse; to examine the state of the patients in the sick wards; and also the state of any sick or insane pauper in the other wards.

No. 3. To give all necessary directions as to the diet, classification, and treatment of the sick paupers, and paupers of unsound mind, and to report to the Board of Guardians any pauper of unsound in the workhouse whom he may deem to be dangerous.

No. 4. To enter in a book, to be provided for that purpose, called the Sick Dietary Book, all directions which he may give regarding the diet of sick paupers, and paupers of unsound mind, and to submit the same to the guardians at their weekly meetings.

No. 5. To report in writing to the Board of Guardians any defect in the diet, drainage, ventilation, warmth, or other arrangement of the workhouse, or any excess in the number of any class of inmates, which he may deem to be detrimental to the health of the inmates.

No. 6. To give all necessary directions as to the diet of the children, and to vaccinate such of the children as may require vaccination.

No. 7. To make a weekly return to the Board of Guardians in a book prepared according to the prescribed form, and to insert therein the date of every attendance and to deliver the same when completed to the Guardians.

No. 8. To enter in his weekly return the death of every pauper who shall die in the workhouse, together with the apparent cause thereof.

No. 9. To give to the guardians, when required, any reasonable information respecting the case of any pauper who lass been under his care; to make any such written report relative to any sickness prevalent among the paupers in the workhouse, as the Board of Guardians, or the Poor Law Commissioners, may require of him; and to attend the Board of Guardians when requested by them so to do.

Duties of the Chaplain.

Article 67. The following shall be the duties of a Chaplain of the workhouse:—

No. 1. To celebrate divine service and to preach to the paupers every Sunday and on such other days as may be directed by competent authority.

No. 2. To visit any sick pauper in the workhouse, from time to time, and at all times when he may be applied to for that purpose by the master or matron.

No. 3. To examine and catechise the children, at least once in every month; and after each of such examinations to record the same, and state the general progress of the children in a book to be kept for that purpose, to be laid before the Board of Guardians at their next ordinary Meeting; in which book the chaplain shall also insert the date of each of his attendances at the workhouse.

Provided, always, that it shall be lawful for the guardians, with the previous consent of the Poor Law Commissioners, to dispense with the performance of any of the duties specified in this Article.

Provided, also, that nothing herein prescribed shall be construed to authorize any chaplain or other officer of the workhouse to act otherwise than in conformity with the provisions of the 49th section of the first recited Act.

Explanation of Terms.

Article 68.—Whenever the word "Guardians," or the words "Board of Guardians," are used in this Order, such word or words shall be taken to signify the Guardians and Board of Guardians appointed or acting for the Union to which the workhouse subject to these regulations belongs.

Article 69.—Whenever there may be more than one workhouse belonging to a union, this Order shall be held to apply to each and every of such workhouses, in so far as the regulations herein contained shall be applicable to the class or classes of paupers respectively maintained in any such workhouse, and to the officers appointed or to be appointed for such workhouse.

Article 70.—Whenever in this Order any article is referred to by its number, the article of this Order bearing that number shall be taken to be signified thereby.

Article 71.—Whenever, in describing any person or party, matter or thing, the word importing the singular number or the masculine gender only is used in this Order, the same shall be taken to include, and shall be applied to, several persons or parties as well as one person or party, and females as well as males, and several matters or things as well as one matter or thing respectively, unless there be something in the subject or context repugnant to such construction.


Form (A.)

No. of CaseNameOffenceDate of OffencePunishment afflicted by Master or other OfficerOpinion of Guardians thereofPunishment ordered by Board of GuardiansDate of PunishmentInitials of ClerkObservations
 
 
         

 

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